Johann Heinrich Hulenkampf | Catedral . Faro [Portugal]

crop web JHHul Far João Valério 9

Photography by João Valério
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The Faro cathedral organ was built from 1715 to 1716, most likely by Johann Heinrich Hulenkampf. This organbuilder was an apprentice and, later, one of the main employees in Schnitger’s workshop, and is thought to have moved into Portugal in 1701 due to the assembly of the Schnitger’s organ from the São Salvador de Moreira monastery (in Maia, commonly referred to as monastery of Moreira da Maia). From that time on, it is known that he built at least two organs in Lisboa – one for the Convento de São Francisco and another for the Convento do Carmo, both having a written contract in the Portuguese archives (Torre do Tombo).

The case has a format typical from the North Germany tradition – mostly because of the Hulenkampf’s apprenticeship with Arp Schnitger – showing a clear separation from the Hauptwerk section (Órgão principal) and the Brüstwerk (Órgão de peito/ Órgão de frente). Gilding, painting and chinoiseries were made from 1751 to 1752, by Francisco Correia da Silva, an artist originary from the nearby city of Tavira. Chinoiserie became an increasingly frequent decoration during the reign of D. João V.

The organ was originally placed in the central choir gallery but was moved to its own tribune following the 1722 earthquake that caused the collapse of the choir arch, below where the organ stood. In 1767 (already after the 1755 earthquake, also intensely felt in Algarve), the organ was in a poor condition and it was decided by the Chapter of the cathedral to repair the instrument. This task was assigned to Pasquale Caetano Oldovini, an Italian organbuilder living and working in Portugal at that time. During the repair work some modifications were made, including the addition of the facade horizontal trumpets, some additional registers in both organ sections and a small 9 key pedalboard (composed of small short pedals). This intervention approached the instrument sonority to the iberic/italian taste, without changing significantly, however, the original german-type stops.

During the 20th century, in 1974, a restoration was carried by Dirk Andries Flentrop to take the organ back to the 1767 state, reverting some modifications done during the 19th and 20th century, substituting entirely the reeds and tuning the organ in equal temperament. In 2006 Dinarte Machado proceeded to a significant organ maintenance and repair, introducing two new bellows behind the instrument according to the original bellows size (correcting the poor wind supply, with bellows located far away from the instrument), cleaning and repairing the instrument pipework and mechanics, and tuning according to the original diapason but with a meantone temperament (according to Kellner).

Currently the organ is composed of the two main sections – Órgão principal and Positivo de peito – alongside of the small coupled pedalboard with one register (using the pipes from the Órgão principal). The two manuals have 45 keys and short octave, with some split registers. The instrument is tuned to 426Hz and has two effect-registers – one for birds (Rouxinol) and one for drums (Tambores), controlled by two pedals.

A piece of paper was found inside the organ, written by the canon António Fernandes da Cruz David, with the following text:

Original (with truncated or illegible parts in parentheses according to the transcription of João Pedro d’Alvarenga) Translation
[Este órgão] This organ
[foi] encomen[dado] was ordered
[pelo] Revmº Cabido desta ca[tedral] by the Reverend Chapterhouse if this cathedral
[n]o anno de 1715 ao [organei] in the year of 1715 to the organbuilder
ro João Henriques, re[sidente] João Henriques, resident
[em] Lisboa o qual vei[o] in Lisboa that came to assemble
[coloca]l-o em 1716. it in 1716
No anno de 1767 foi [aumen] in the year of 1767 it was enlarged
tado com jogos novo[s de] with new stops and new registers
[re]gistos entre os quaes, [foi] among which was
[posto] o d’echo e contra ec[ho] put the echo and counter-echo by
[pe]lo organeiro Pascoal. the organbuilder Pascoal.
Foi limpo e afinado nos [annos] it was cleaned and tuned in the years
de 1722, 1775, 1814 e ultima[mente] of 1722, 1775, 1814 and lastly
no mez d’Agosto de 1874, [pelo] in the month of August of 1874 by
organeiro hespanhol D. Fran[cis] the spanish organbuilder D. Francisco
co Alcaide. Alcaide.
No compartimento inferior deixo In the lower compartment I leave
[…] […]
C. David C. David

1715-1716 – organ construction
1767 – organ repair and changes by Pasquale Caetano Oldovini
1974 – organ repair by Dirk Andries Flentrop
2006 – organ repair by Dinarte Machado

Órgão principal Órgão de peito Pedal
Flautado de 24 (16′) Flautado de 12 (8′) Contrabaixo de 24 (16’)
Flautado de 12 Aberto (8′) Flautado de 6 (4′)
Bordão (8′) Flautilha de mão direita (4′, right hand)
Oitava real (8′) Quinta Décima (2′)
Quinta real (2 2/3′) Décima Nona (1 1/3′)
Quinta Décima (2′) Vigésima Segunda (1′)
Décima Sétima (1 3/5′) Cheio de mão esquerda (III, left hand
Voz humana (8′, right hand) Cheio de mão direita (II, right hand)
Cheio 1º (II) Cornetilha de ecos (II, left hand)
Cheio 2º (IV) Cornetilha de ecos (III, right hand)
Corneta real (V, right hand)
Trombeta real (8′, left hand)
Clarim (8′, right hand)
Trombeta de marcha (4′, left hand)
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